Imitation porcelain tableware big decoding
On April 12th, CCTV's "News 30" disclosed the illegal behavior of individual melamine tableware enterprises in China to mix urea formaldehyde resin (urea resin) in the production of raw materials to reduce costs. As an industrial raw material, urea-formaldehyde resin will decompose carcinogen-formaldehyde at a certain high temperature.
A stone stirred up a thousand waves. On April 14, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine issued an urgent notice requesting the National Quality Supervision System to conduct a nationwide law enforcement inspection on the production and processing of melamine tableware from now until May 15 to severely investigate and deal with production licenses without production licenses. The melamine tableware, the use of urea formaldehyde resin in production and processing, etc., does not meet the requirements of national standards for illegal materials.
Urgent inspection of inferior tableware
Sunday, April 12.
Many comrades of the Food Production Supervision Department and the Law Enforcement Supervision Division of the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine did not rest as usual.
These two days, from early morning to late night, they spent in the office.
When the reporter saw them, they were busy with their work and had no time to talk to reporters.
During this period, an industrial material called “urea-formaldehyde resin” once again disturbed the sensitive and fragile nerves of the Chinese people.
On the same day, CCTV's "News 30" exposed the illegal behavior of individual enterprises to reduce the production cost and illegally use the industrial raw material urea formaldehyde resin (urea resin) which is banned by the state.
Experts remind that urea-formaldehyde resin will decompose carcinogen-formaldehyde at a certain high temperature. The newly revised “Sanitary Standard for Melamine Moldings for Food Containers and Packaging Materials” clearly stipulates that products must be marked as “prohibited to be used in microwave ovens”.
The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine responded promptly.
On April 14, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine issued an urgent notice requesting the National Quality Supervision System to focus on the production and processing of melamine tableware from now on to May 15 on the basis of law enforcement inspections in key areas in the previous stage. A national law enforcement inspection operation.
The notice pointed out that the local quality and technical supervision bureaus should severely investigate and punish illegal activities of producing and processing melamine tableware without production licenses, and report the unlicensed production and processing sites discovered by inspection to the local government for bans; severely investigate and deal with the production of melamine tableware. The use of urea formaldehyde resin and other raw and auxiliary materials that do not meet the requirements of national standards is illegal; severely investigate and deal with illegal activities such as doping adulteration, false filling, shoddy filling, and production of toxic and hazardous substances such as formaldehyde that exceed the limits of national standards; Strictly investigate and punish counterfeiting and fraudulent use of factory names, sites and quality marks. Concentrate on areas where regional quality problems are found to carry out regional remediation.
The first battle of Qing Dynasty inferior melamine tableware started in Guangdong. The Guangdong Provincial Quality Supervision Department sealed and sampled the two Dongguan enterprises exposed on the same day. Prior to this, the quality inspection department of Guangdong Province carried out special rectification of melamine tableware at the end of last year, and investigated and dealt with 21 unlicensed production enterprises according to law. This media supervision report indicated that there was a resurgence or a single network leak after the last investigation. Guangdong law enforcement officials are heavy in their hearts.
Then, Hebei, Beijing, Sichuan, Guangxi, Henan, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Fujian, Liaoning, Hunan, Chongqing and other geological supervision departments under the leadership of local government organizations to conduct centralized law enforcement inspections.
The responsible comrades of the two divisions of the AQSIQ stressed that according to the latest responsibilities of the Food Safety Law, the quality supervision department will continue to crack down on illegal production activities of enterprises that have not obtained production licenses.
Imitation porcelain tableware: "toxic tableware"?
In December 2008, Beijing University of Chemical Technology tested some melamine products (including products that have obtained production licenses) and found that some enterprises added urea-formaldehyde resin with safety hazards in production. Some enterprises even use urea-formaldehyde resin to produce melamine. tableware.
In March of this year, the Beijing Physical and Chemical Analysis and Testing Center, which has national testing qualifications, tested 15 brands of melamine tableware sold in the Beijing market. The results showed that the products of the four brands were unqualified.
In fact, as early as December 2008, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) has organized inspection organizations and experts to analyze and inspect the safety of related products, and to guide the investigation and investigation work.
On December 30, 2008, Beijing organized the inspection of tableware (box) for sale in markets, shopping malls, supermarkets, etc., and resolutely investigated and dealt with the melamine plastic tableware boxes produced by unlicensed manufacturers. Clear the market.
Why do melamine tableware attract such "non-consideration"? This has to start with melamine.
Melamine, as the 2008 Sanlu milk powder incident is well known to Chinese consumers.
Melamine formaldehyde resin, also known as melamine resin, the English abbreviation MF. The polymer obtained by reacting melamine with formaldehyde is an indispensable raw material for making melamine tableware.
Commercially available melamine tableware is mostly made of melamine resin. Its physical and chemical properties are different from those of small molecule melamine. It is non-toxic and is not the same as melamine added to milk powder. The two are completely different.
Internationally, it is not uncommon to use melamine resin for tableware.
Environmental experts say that melamine-containing food utensils are also common in Japan. Japan stipulates that the maximum amount of melamine dissolved in melamine plastic containers should not exceed 2 mg per liter. According to Japanese standards, the resin used to make food containers must ensure that melamine cannot be dissolved (ie, not detected) within 30 minutes at 60 °C. Since Japanese manufacturers strictly abide by the regulations, there have been no accidents that have caused human health damage.
The focus of the current controversy is that some companies use urea-formaldehyde resins as raw materials to produce melamine tableware.
The polymer obtained by reacting urea with formaldehyde is urea-formaldehyde resin, also known as urea-formaldehyde resin, the abbreviation UF. Urea-formaldehyde resin products are easy to absorb water, and are easily decomposed when exposed to strong acid and alkali. When exposed to water above 80 °C, formaldehyde is easily released.
Formaldehyde is a colorless, highly irritating gas that has been identified by the World Health Organization as a carcinogenic and teratogenic substance. Long-term exposure to low doses of formaldehyde can cause chronic respiratory diseases, eye diseases, irregular menstruation, pregnancy syndrome, neonatal malformations, and mental depression. In addition, it can also reduce the physical condition of newborns and cause heart disease in children.
Therefore, urea-formaldehyde resins are mainly used in the manufacture of molded plastics, in the manufacture of household goods and electrical parts, as well as in sheet adhesives, paper and fabric pastes, veneers, architectural decorative panels, and the like. Due to its light color and easy coloration, the products are often rich in color and magnificence.
The reporters saw many kinds of melamine tableware in various supermarkets such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart in Beijing. The rice bowls, dishes, rice spoons, spoons and other commodities were involved.
According to the salesperson, the melamine tableware is colorful, diverse in shape and cheap, so it has been loved by many consumers, especially children and teenagers.
In real life, melamine tableware is popular for children and the elderly because of its resistance to falling, and it is especially popular among children and the elderly. It is considered to be a universal tableware, and it can be done with all kinds of clothes. How can it be done, and whoever makes it will be how long it will take.
actually not. Experts advise that if the melamine plastic raw material resin is not well polymerized, melamine will remain and the melamine molecules will be released at high temperatures. However, the standard is not clearly stated, and the company's product specification is not stated, and consumers can only use it passively. Some enterprises drilled the loopholes in the national standard and used urea-formaldehyde resin to produce melamine tableware, which brought potential safety hazards to consumers.
Due to inconsistent standard requirements, it has brought difficulties to government supervision and monitoring, and it has created opportunities for the survival of unscrupulous manufacturers and inferior products.
Is it the industry's "hidden rules"?
In China, melamine tableware has become a pillar industry for economic development.
According to industry insiders, there are tens of thousands of plastic melamine tableware machines in Fujian, and there are too many small enterprises in the surrounding areas of certified enterprises, and each one is recruiting and adding equipment.
Zhejiang and Guangdong have also added a number of plastic melamine tableware factories.
Many countries and regions in Southeast Asia import various melamine tableware from Fujian and other provinces.
Huge economic benefits have become the driving force behind the illegal production of urea-formaldehyde resins in some enterprises.
The industry has calculated the economic benefits of imitation ivory chopsticks in melamine tableware: 18 grams of ivory chopsticks, 0.08 yuan of raw materials (urea aldehyde resin), 0.01 yuan of taxes, 0.005 yuan of electricity, 0.01 yuan of wages, depreciation, management, etc. Other expenses are 0.03 yuan, totaling 0.135 yuan, the wholesale price of the market is 0.5 yuan, and the actual net profit is 0.365 yuan. With a daily output of 20,000 pairs of chopsticks, the net profit per day is 7,300 yuan.
Insiders revealed that the same 4.5-inch size imitation porcelain bowl, the price of A1 material is 0.7 yuan, the price of A3 material is 1.5 yuan, and the price of A5 material is 3.8 yuan.
According to environmental experts, A1 is a urea-formaldehyde resin, A3 is a mixture of urea-formaldehyde resin and melamine resin (wherein urea-formaldehyde resin accounts for 70%), and A5 material is melamine resin (commonly known as "Melamine").
At present, the price of melamine resin on the market is more than 15,000 yuan per ton, and the cheap urea-formaldehyde resin is only 1/4 of the price of melamine resin.
Due to the large difference in cost, the price of melamine tableware produced by melamine resin is relatively high. Some of the certified melamine tableware produced by some large companies are difficult to enter the domestic market, and can only be seen in large and medium-sized shopping malls and supermarkets.
In addition, the industry said that the production of melamine tableware, there are molding curing, which has strict time control. In the regular production workshop, each machine is equipped with a time controller, in order to give sufficient time for the release of toxic substances (such as formaldehyde) in the product during the production process. But in some small businesses, there are no such control links and systems on many production machines.
“Small enterprises do not follow this production procedure, which not only saves raw material costs, but also saves time.” The industry source said that regular machines produce about 500 molds per machine per day, while some small companies can produce 1,500 per day. Modules.
The person also pointed out that many small and medium-sized melamine tableware manufacturers have both urea-formaldehyde resin and melamine resin in the workshop. At the time of the inspection, the company immediately replaced the A1 material with the A5 material, which is difficult to control from the supervision of raw materials. For the sake of their own interests, the company will also conceal the true purchase record of raw materials and the true record of shipments. This undoubtedly caused a regulatory problem for the law enforcement personnel of the quality supervision department.
“In the industry of melamine tableware, there is no real norm at present.” In the interview, the person lamented that the country did not explicitly prohibit A1 materials from being used as imitation porcelain, so some enterprises drilled standard empty holes. , using urea-formaldehyde resin to make tableware.
The current Health Standard for Melamine Moldings for Food Packaging (GB9690-88), which was approved by the Ministry of Health on August 10, 1988 and implemented on June 1, 1989, specifies the sanitary requirements for melamine molded products. In terms of physical and chemical indicators, the standards have been stipulated.
It can be seen from this that the sanitary standard does not stipulate the free melamine migration limit value, nor the urea-formaldehyde resin test item, and has not been modified for 20 years.
The relevant EU standards stipulate that the migration of formaldehyde monomer is not more than 15 mg per liter, and the migration of melamine monomer is not more than 30 mg per liter, that is, the migration of formaldehyde is twice as strict as the migration of melamine.
In 2007, the Consumer Rights and Citizenship Protection and Supervision Bureau of the Russian Federation issued a decree order requiring melamine migration of melamine tableware to be 0.1 mg per liter. It is also not recommended for children to use melamine tableware in the Russian "Limited Limits of Chemical Substances in Contact with Food Packaging Materials". It is not recommended to use such tableware in public restaurants that require multiple washing and disinfection, especially as tableware and heat for high-temperature foods. A container for hot drinks.
The current National Health Department issued the "Sanitary Standard for the Use of Auxiliaries for Food Containers and Packaging Materials" (GB9685-2003), which was issued on September 24, 2003 and implemented on May 1, 2004, for the use of urea-formaldehyde resin and migrated formaldehyde. There is no regulation on the quantity limit.
In addition, the current melamine plastic tableware industry standard QB1999-94 approved by the former Ministry of Light Industry on August 23, 1994 and implemented on May 1, 1995, specifies the physical and mechanical properties of melamine tableware, but the industry The standard is applicable to melamine plastic tableware which is obtained by molding by using melamine-formaldehyde resin as base material and melamine molding powder with σ-cellulose as filler as raw material. Urea-formaldehyde resin products are not covered by this standard.
The newly revised Sanitary Standard for Melamine Moldings for Food Containers and Packaging Materials will be implemented as an alternative to the Sanitary Standard for Melamine Moldings for Food Packaging (GB9690-88).
The Health Standards for the Use of Additives for Food Containers and Packaging Materials (GB9685-2008), drafted by the Nutrition and Food Safety Institute of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and proposed by the Ministry of Health, will be implemented on June 1 this year.
It is understood that although the new standard GB9685-2008 has not included urea-formaldehyde resin in the testing project, it has added a key content, that is, the raw materials used by the production enterprises are required to release any toxic and harmful substances under the foreseeable future use conditions.
The new standard GB9685-2008 (Draft for Comment) "Principles for the Use of Additives for Food Containers and Packaging Materials" clearly states: "When food containers and packaging materials come into contact with food, the level of additives that migrate into foods should not endanger human health."
“This implies substances that are not allowed to be used by national standards such as urea-formaldehyde resins,” the experts cautioned. “And the new standard is twice as strict as the original standard. Some guidelines have been added, including how consumers use it. It is finer than the original."
It is understood that the health standard to be implemented is derived from the European Union. The variety of food additives in the new standard is expanded to nearly 1,000 by 65 of the "Sanitary Standards for the Use of Auxiliaries for Food Containers and Packaging Materials" (GB9685-2003). Kind.
In this regard, experts are not worried. Although the use of additives in food containers is an internationally accepted practice, for China, the additives for food containers have increased from 65 to nearly a thousand. How should related companies and regulatory authorities face nearly a thousand additives? How should consumers face nearly a thousand kinds of additives in tableware and daily necessities in life? This is undoubtedly a new topic of food safety.
It is reported that the International Chemical Manufacturers Association (AICM) participated in the formulation of the "Sanitary Standard for the Use of Additives for Food Containers and Packaging Materials" (GB9685-2008).
According to industry insiders, the association is behind the scenes of the new standard GB9685-2008.
The information shows that AICM was established in Hong Kong in 1998 and has since evolved to become the best international promotion for all member companies to Chinese chemical industry stakeholders.