Dong Jinshi Yong reveals the melamine tableware shady
"As a technical expert in the packaging and environmental protection tableware industry, we have the courage to issue independent voices on the problems faced by the relevant market. In 2005, we had a carcinogenic problem with PVC cling film, which directly pointed out the drawbacks of China's packaging industry. At the end of 2008, 'imitation porcelain tableware containing melamine' The storm has made Dong Jinshi more widely known. "2009 "3.15", the environmental expert who is crazy about fakes - Dong Jinshi won the first of the top ten rights defending journalists in the country by the netizens. This comment is the awarding word for him.
Dong Jinshi, graduated from the Chemistry Department of Northwest University in 1986. After graduating in 1986, he was admitted to the Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to study for environmental chemistry. In 1989, he graduated with a master's degree in environmental chemistry. The tutor is Xu Xiaobai, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; 1989-1995 Worked at the Institute of Labor Health of the Ministry of Railways, mainly engaged in the research and development of environmentally-friendly plastic tableware; in 1996, he organized the establishment of Beijing Kaifa Environmental Technology Consulting Center, and served as the director of the center (legal representative). Mainly engaged in research and development of various environmentally friendly packaging materials, product testing and recycling of various waste plastics and other technologies.
He is also the deputy secretary-general of the Beijing Environmental Science Society, the executive vice president and secretary general of the International Food Packaging Association, the visiting professor of Northwestern University, the secretary-general of the Beijing Environmental Protection Tableware Joint Organization, and many other social positions.
For more than 10 years, he has traveled to more than 10 provinces and cities in China, with a journey of tens of thousands of kilometers. He has been fighting for "white pollution", environmental protection, and maintaining the health of the people. He was crowned with the title of "China's first environmental protection person", "green packaging expert", "environmental ambassador", "white-stained fighter", and the Chinese version of "Green Giant". He is actively promoting the "plastic limit". One of them.
"There is no garbage in the world. It is the garbage that human beings make themselves. The garbage is the resource that is misplaced. The garbage that is buried together is an untimely bomb. Only classified treatment can make rational use of it; I believe that no garbage society can be realized. I am willing to fight for the protection of Mother Earth for the rest of my life!" This is the famous saying of Dong Jinshi.
The melamine tableware entered the public's field of vision due to the "melamine" incident. In the process of "melamine" incident being fully exposed, Dong Jinshi first noticed that this substance was originally the main component of the melamine (melamine) tableware commonly used in life. Therefore, the safety of such tableware is naturally suspected. Since November 13, 2008, the International Food Packaging Association has conducted continuous investigation and analysis of melamine tableware. Taking these investigations as a clue, CCTV's "News 30" exposed the inferior melamine tableware on December 26, 2008. After more than half a year, the public has been paying attention to the progress of the situation.
• From investigation and evidence collection to national cofferdams
First, the first investigation and detection, found that security risks
In order to understand the quality of melamine (melamine) tableware sold in the Beijing market, the International Food Packaging Association commissioned a team of Beijing Kaifa Environmental Technology Consulting Center to purchase the sales at the 5 wholesale markets in Beijing on November 13, 2008. Imitation porcelain (melamine) tableware, but on the tableware, no production license mark and number were found, and the seller could not provide the manufacturer's production license. In order to understand the quality of the products, the investigation team sent five samples to the National Environmental Protection Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center on November 14 in accordance with the “Sanitary Standard for Melamine Molding Products for Food Packaging” GB 9690-88 for sensory and evaporation residues (water). Detection of potassium permanganate consumption (water), formaldehyde, heavy metals and decolorization tests. The test results showed that among the five samples sent for inspection, three were qualified samples, and the unqualified items of the two unqualified samples were potassium permanganate consumption (water) and formaldehyde exceeded the standard.
Because the melamine (melamine) tableware is made by heating and pressing the melamine resin powder, the melamine resin is polymerized from melamine and formaldehyde. If the raw material resin is not well polymerized, melamine remains and is heated to 120 at high temperature. It can be precipitated at around °C, posing a safety hazard to the human body. In the sample of this investigation, it was found that the formaldehyde exceeded the standard, and then the melamine resin obtained by the polymerization reaction was used to process the melamine (melamine) tableware. Is there any melamine precipitation?
In addition, what is the quality of the products that have obtained the production license? What is the quality of the melamine (melamine) tableware sold in the supermarkets and supermarkets?
According to the "Rules for the Examination of Production Licenses for Plastic Packaging, Containers, Tools, etc." issued by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China, the standard for the detection of melamine tableware is "Micamine Plastic Tableware" QB 1999-94, which is in addition to hygienic performance. In addition to the provisions of GB 9690, the physical and mechanical properties of melamine tableware are also regulated. Then, according to the standard test, what is the quality of melamine (melamine) tableware?
Second, expand the scope of sample purchase and testing, and discover new problems
With the above problems, the investigation team increased the scope of the investigation from 5 booths in the first five wholesale markets to 10 booths in 8 wholesale markets, and added 5 supermarket chains to obtain 15 samples. On November 25, 2008, the samples were sent to the National Environmental Protection Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center in accordance with the "Sanitary Standards for Melamine Molding Products" GB 9690-88, "Melamine Plastic Tableware" QB 1999-94 and the European Union Standard DD CEN/TS 13130-27-2005 "Materials and articles in contact with food. Restricted plastic materials. Determination of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine in food simulants" for hygienic performance, physical machinery Performance and migration testing, the main testing items are potassium permanganate consumption (water), formaldehyde, heat and humidity resistance and melamine migration.
Since China's standards do not test the residual amount of melamine, after several twists and turns, the National Environmental Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center agreed to test the samples according to EU standards. Surprisingly, the test results showed that melamine was not detected in all 15 samples. A large number of subsequent investigations and analyses have shown that the main reason for the failure to detect melamine is that the company generally has a cheap formaldehyde excess in the process of producing the resin.
The five samples sold by the chain supermarket can not only provide the production license of the product manufacturer, but also pass the test according to the national standard; the 10 samples sold in the wholesale market, only the seller of one product can provide the production license of the manufacturer of the product being sold. However, the product inspection is unqualified, and the five products are qualified, and the pass rate is 50%. The unqualified cases mainly include cracks in the formaldehyde content exceeding the standard and the heat and humidity resistance test sample.
Third, simulation experiments, rapid identification
A strange problem was found in the investigation. The imaginary porcelain (melamine) tableware of the same specification that was judged to be qualified in the hygienic performance test according to national standards, the price is as high as 10 yuan, and the low price is only 3 yuan. Why? Is there such a disparity in price difference, is it just a competitive means of business?
With this problem, the investigation team refers to the requirements of the heat and humidity resistance test in the melamine plastic tableware QB 1999-94, using the induction cooker commonly used in daily life, stainless steel pots with lids and other pure drinking water to simulate the experimental conditions. All samples were tested for damp heat resistance. According to the test procedure, the sample was placed in boiling water (maintained in boiling water state) for 30 minutes, and then taken out, left at room temperature for 30 minutes, and then placed in boiling water (maintained in boiling water) for digesting. This process was repeated 4 times. During the cooking process, some samples were found to be cracked, deformed and whitened, and the smell of pungent and smoked eyes was released.
The product made of melamine formaldehyde resin is stable in boiling water and can even be used at a high temperature of 150 ° C. Therefore, cooking in boiling water does not change.
Depending on the different phenomena in boiling water, genuine melamine (melamine) cutlery can be distinguished from inferior melamine (melamine) cutlery.
During the cooking process, some samples were found to have cracks, deformation and whitening, and the smell of pungent and smoked eyes was released. Comparing with the test data of the inspection center directly under the State Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, it is found that some samples are qualified products in the laboratory, but in the course of daily use, white deformation occurs, and after two hours of placement, Foaming and cracking occurred. For example, the green melamine bowl produced by Taizhou Hill Household Products Co., Ltd. sold by Beijing Carrefour Commercial Co., Ltd. is qualified in the inspection center directly under the State Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, but in the simulation. In the test, it was found that the first time it was placed in boiling water, there was obvious whitening, and the longer the time, the larger the whitish area, and the pungent and blinking odor was released. However, the beige melamine bowl produced by Huizhou Wuhe Industrial Co., Ltd., which was sold by Beijing Yichu Lotus Chain Supermarket Co., Ltd., has not changed.
Fourth, in-depth investigation, scientific argumentation
The investigation team found a more confusing problem in the simulation experiment. Some of them were qualified products in the National Environmental Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center. In the simulation test, they found that the sample was obviously white when it was first put into boiling water. Phenomenon, and the longer the time, the larger the whitish area, and the release of pungent, blinking odor.
Professor Dong Jinshi, executive vice president and secretary general of the International Food Packaging Association, who has been engaged in chemical research, judges that the problem must be in raw materials. Just at this time, a report letter from a melamine tableware manufacturer in Guangdong was mailed to the association. The letter discloses the well-known "secret" in the industry - according to national standards, melamine (melamine) tableware should be produced with melamine formaldehyde resin (also known as melamine resin), while some inferior melamine tableware is used. It can not be used to make urea-formaldehyde resin or urea-formaldehyde resin and melamine resin mixture for food packaging products. From the outside, it is difficult for ordinary consumers to distinguish the difference between the two. However, the production of a melamine tableware, the use of melamine formaldehyde resin (melamine resin) price of about 10 yuan, and the use of urea formaldehyde resin (urea resin) processing, only three or four dollars, the disparity in the price gap makes the country nearly a thousand imitation In the porcelain tableware production enterprises, there are very few products that use melamine formaldehyde resin in accordance with national standards. Although the appearance seems to be consistent, in the process of use, inferior melamine tableware will release formaldehyde, long-term use will endanger health.
In order to clarify the truth, the investigation team has contacted the National Plastics Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center (Beijing), the National Food Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, the National Environmental Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, the Beijing Physical and Chemical Analysis and Testing Center, SGS and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The national standard "Sanitary Standard for Melamine Molding for Food Packaging", which is implemented by the melamine (melamine) tableware, does not accept the test requirements of urea formaldehyde resin in GB 9690-88, and refuses to accept samples. After learning that the sample was rejected by the multi-party inspection agency, CCTV reporter contacted Professor Zhang Junying of the Bonding Materials and In-situ Curing Laboratory of Beijing University of Chemical Technology. In an objective, scientific and fair manner, Professor Zhang analyzed 15 samples by NMR technology. The absorption peak of the functional group contained in the urea-formaldehyde resin (urea-formaldehyde resin) appeared in the vicinity of 159 ppm, and the absorption peak of the functional group contained in the melamine resin (melamine-formaldehyde resin) appeared in the vicinity of 165 ppm, thereby judging whether or not the urea-formaldehyde resin was contained in the polymer.
The NMR experiment proved that there were only three kinds of melamine (melamine) tableware samples made from melamine formaldehyde resin in 15 samples, and all of the 10 products used urea formaldehyde resin to make melamine (melamine) tableware. It also includes some enterprises that have obtained production licenses, and two kinds of melamine (melamine) tableware are made of melamine formaldehyde resin and urea formaldehyde resin mixture.
Fifth, the media exposure, government action
On December 26, 2008, CCTV's "News 30" reported on the inferior melamine tableware with the title of "Imitation of Porcelain Tableware". Subsequently, the major media published articles on the inferior melamine tableware. On December 29, 2008, the Beijing Municipal Administration of Industry and Commerce issued a notice to the district/county sub-bureaus and professional sub-bureaus on the inspection of melamine plastic tableware lunch boxes, and encircled the problem-like porcelain (melamine) tableware in the city.
Zhejiang Taizhou Huangyan Food Safety Committee issued the No. 1 Document of 2009, “Notice on Strengthening the Supervision of the Quality of Melamine Tableware Products” (hereinafter referred to as the “Notice”), requiring all relevant units and related enterprises to make products of melamine tableware. Quality supervision work.
On February 9, 2009, the Hebei Provincial Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision announced on its official website the market supervision and inspection of the quality of the melamine tableware products in the province. In the melamine tableware produced by 20 companies across the country, 17 The quality of home products does not meet national standards, and the pass rate is less than 20%. The announcement also pointed out that enterprises that fail to pass the quality of the products in the spot check shall be dealt with according to law and rectified within a time limit.
Sixth, the storm is reviving, and it is repeated
On the occasion of the 3.15 arrival in 2009, the International Food Packaging Association commissioned Beijing Kaifa Environmental Technology Consulting Center to conduct a random purchase of 15 kinds of melamine (melamine) tableware sold in 4 supermarket chains and 5 wholesale markets in Beijing. And sent to Beijing Physical and Chemical Analysis and Testing Center according to "Sanitary Standards for Melamine Molding Products for Food Packaging" GB 9690-88 and "Melamine Tableware" QB 1999-94 for inspection. After the baptism of "melamine storm", the quality of imitation porcelain (melamine) tableware sold in the wholesale market has been significantly improved, and the proven porcelain tableware has gradually become the mainstream product, but the disqualification rate is still close to 50%.
In order to thoroughly expose the domestic toxic melamine (melamine) tableware, the International Food Packaging Association assisted CCTV and other news media to conduct in-depth investigations in Beijing, Hebei and Guangdong, and found that not only the enterprises that have not been certified continue to produce, Dongguan A certified company in the city is also using urea formaldehyde resin to make melamine tableware. CCTV's "News 30 points" was titled "Partial melamine tableware enterprises continue to use toxic raw materials urea-formaldehyde resin in violation of regulations", and the violations were again disclosed in seven minutes.
Seven, find problems, urgent investigation
On April 15, 2009, "News 30" broadcasted an "Emergency Notice of the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine to Further Develop the Lawful Inspection of Imitation Porcelain Tableware", the notice said, "In recent years, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine has found through investigation that some lawless elements are disregarded. Consumers' health and safety, the use of urea formaldehyde to produce melamine tableware that does not meet the requirements of national standards, seriously infringes on the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, so it is necessary to focus on a national law enforcement inspection." In this national law enforcement inspection operation, illegal production enterprises and unqualified melamine tableware have nowhere to be seen, and the country's clean and clear enamel tableware market has been purified.
Eight, the new standard issued more physical and chemical indicators
From the end of 2008, the melamine (melamine) tableware "storm" made people notice the aging of food containers and packaging materials and the modification after "everything". In February 2009, the Ministry of Health and the National Standards Committee issued the “Sanitary Standard for Melamine-Formaldehyde Molding Products for Food Containers and Packaging Materials”, which was implemented on September 1, 2009.
• From technological innovation to people's hearts